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20 May 2014

100 Scientists Who Shaped World History

 
 
The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present
 
 
The list below is from the book The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present, Citadel Press (2000), written by John Galbraith Simmons.
 
 
 
 
1 Isaac Newton  -the Newtonian Revolution
 
 
 
2 Albert Einstein -Twentieth-Century Science
 
 
 
3 Neils Bohr - the Atom
 
 
 
4 Charles Darwin - Evolution
 
 
 
5 Louis Pasteur -the Germ Theory of Disease
 
 
 
6 Sigmund Freud -Psychology of the Unconscious
 
 
 
7 Galileo Galileio-the New Science
 
  
8. Antoine Laurent avoisier -   The Revolution of Chemistry
 
 
9 Johannes Kepler -Motion of the Planets
 
 
10 Nicolaus Copernicus -the Heliocentric Universe
 
 
 11 Michael Faraday -the Classical Field Theory
 
 
12 James Clerk Maxwell -the Electromagnetic Field
 
 
13 Claude Bernard -the Founding of Modern Physiology
 
  
14 Franz Boas - Modern Anthropology
 
15 Werner Heisenberg -Quantum Theory
 
 16 Linus Pauling -Twentieth-Century Chemistry  
 
17 Rudolf Virchow -the Cell Doctrine  
 
18 Erwin Schrodinger -Wave Mechanics  
 
19 Ernest Rutherford -the Structure of the Atom  
 
20 Paul Dirac - Quantum Electrodynamics
 
21 Andreas Vesalius -the New Anatomy
 
22 Tycho Brahe -the New Astronomy  
 
23 Comte de Buffon -l'Histoire Naturelle
 
24 Ludwig Boltzmann -Thermodynamics   
 
25 Max Planck -the Quanta
 
26 Marie Curie -Radioactivity 
 
27 William Herschel -the Discovery of the Heavens
   
28 Charles Lyell -Modern Geology
 
 29 Pierre Simon de Laplace -Newtonian Mechanics
   
30 Edwin Hubble -the Modern Telescope
  
31 Joseph J. Thomson -the Discovery of the Electron  
 
32 Max Born -Quantum Mechanics 
 
33 Francis Crick -Molecular Biology  
 
34 Enrico Fermi -Atomic Physics
  
35 Leonard Euler -Eighteenth-Century Mathematics
  
36 Justus Liebig -Nineteenth-Century Chemistry
 
 37 Arthur Eddington -Modern Astronomy
 
38 William Harvey -Circulation of the Blood 
 
39 Marcello Malpighi -Microscopic Anatomy
   
40 Christiaan Huygens -the Wave Theory of Light
 
41 Carl Gauss (Karl Friedrich Gauss) -Mathematical Genius  
 
42 Albrecht von Haller -Eighteenth-Century Medicine
 
43 August Kekule -Chemical Structure
 
44 Robert Koch -Bacteriology  
 
45 Murray Gell-Mann -the Eightfold Way  
 
46 Emil Fischer -Organic Chemistry  
 
47 Dmitri Mendeleev -the Periodic Table of Elements  
 
48 Sheldon Glashow -the Discovery of Charm  
 
49 James Watson -the Structure of DNA 
 
50 John Bardeen -Superconductivity 
 
51 John von Neumann-the Modern Computer
 
52 Richard Feynman -Quantum Electrodynamics
 
53 Alfred Wegener -Continental Drift
  
54 Stephen Hawking -Quantum Cosmology
 
55 Anton van Leeuwenhoek -the Simple Microscope  
 
56 Max von Laue -X-ray Crystallography
 
 57 Gustav Kirchhoff -Spectroscopy
  
58 Hans Bethe -the Energy of the Sun
   
59 Euclid -the Foundations of Mathematics
   
60 Gregor Mendel-the Laws of Inheritance 
 
61Heike Kamerlingh Onnes-Superconductivity
 
62 Thomas Hunt Morgan -the Chromosomal Theory of Heredity
  
63 Hermann von Helmholtz -the Rise of German Science
  
64 Paul Ehrlich -Chemotherapy
   
65 Ernst Mayr -Evolutionary Theory
 
 66 Charles Sherrington -Neurophysiology
 
  67 Theodosius Dobzhansky -the Modern Synthesis
   
68 Max Delbruck -the Bacteriophage
  
69 Jean Baptiste Lamarck - the Foundations of Biology
  
70 William Bayliss -Modern Physiology
 
 71Noam Chomsky -Twentieth-Century Linguistics
 
 72 Frederick Sanger-the Genetic Code
 
73 Lucretius -Scientific Thinking
   
74 John Dalton -the Theory of the Atom
  
75 Louis Victor de Broglie -Wave/Particle Duality
 
76 Carl Linnaeus -the Binomial Nomenclature
 
 77 Jean Piaget -Child Development
 
 78 George Gaylord Simpson -the Tempo of Evolution
 
  79 Claude Levi-Strauss -Structural Anthropology
   
80 Lynn Margulis -Symbiosis Theory
 
 81 Karl Landsteiner -the Blood Groups
 
82 Konrad Lorenz -Ethology
 
83 Edward O. Wilson -Sociobiology
 
84 Frederick Gowland Hopkins -Vitamins  
 
85 Gertrude Belle Elion- Pharmacology 
 
86 Hans Selye -the Stress Concept 
 
87 .J. Robert Oppenheimer -the Atomic Era
  
88 Edward Teller -the Bomb
  
89 Willard Libby -Radioactive Dating
 
 90 Ernst Haeckel -the Biogenetic Principle
 
91 Jonas Salk -Vaccination
 
92 Emil Kraepelin -Twentieth-Century Psychiatry 
 
93 Trofim Lysenko -Soviet Genetics
 
94 Francis Galton -Eugenics 
 
95 Alfred Binet -the I.Q. Test 
 
96 Alfred Kinsey-Human Sexuality
   
97 Alexander Fleming -Penicillin
  
98 B. F. Skinner -Behaviorism
  
99 Wilhelm Wundt - the Founding of Psychology
   
100 Archimedes -the Beginning of Science
 
  
100 Scientists Who Shaped World History
 
The list below is from the book 100 Scientists Who Shaped World History (Bluewood Books: San Francisco, CA, © 2000), written by John Hudson Tiner.
 
The names in this list are listed in chronological order. This book does not purport to list the "most influential" scientists in history, although these are presumably among them. The names listed are not ranked in any way relative to each other. The back cover states:
 
 
100 Scientists Who Shaped World History is a fascinating book about the men and women who made significant impacts upon our understanding of the world around us. This chronologically-organized book provides capsule biographies of important scientists and describes how their contributions have shaped the world in which we live.
 
 
 
Pythagoras
 
c. 580 B.C.-C. 500 B.C.
 
 
 
 
Hippocates
 
c. 460 B.C.-377 B.C.
 
 
 
 
Aristotle
 
384 B.C.-322 B.C.
 
 
Euclid
 
c. 325 B.C.-270 B.C.
 
 
Archimedes
 
c. 287-c. 212 B.C.
 
 
Eratosthenes
 
c. 276 B.C.-c. 196 B.C.
 
 
 
 
Galen
 
c. A.D. 130-c. 216
 
 
 
 
Hakim Ibn-e-Sina
 
A.D. 980-1037
 
 
Nicolaus Copernicus
 
1473-1543
 
 
Andreas Vesalius
 
1514-1564
 
 
Gallileo Galilei
 
1564-1642
 
 
Johannes Kepler
 
1571-1630
 
 
William Harvey
 
1578-1657
 
 
Rene Descartes
 
1596-1650
 
 
Blaise Pascal
 
1623-1662
 
 
Robert Boyle
 
1627-1691
 
 
Christian Huygens
 
1632-1695
 
 
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
 
1632-1723
 
 
Robert Hooke
 
1635-1703
 
 
Isaac Newton
 
1642-1727
 
 
 
 
 
Edmund Halley
 
1656-1742
 
 
 
 
Daniel Bernoulli
 
1700-1782
 
 
Benjamin Franklin
 
1706-1790
 
 
Leonard Euler
 
1707-1783
 
 
Carolus Linnaeus
 
1707-1778
 
 
Henry Cavendish
 
1731-1810
 
 
 
 
Joseph Priestley
 
1733-1804
 
 
William Herschel
 
1738-1822
 
 
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier
 
1743-1794
 
 
Alessandro Volta
 
1746-1827
 
 
Edward Jenner
 
1749-1823
 
 
John Dalton
 
1766-1844
 
 
Georges Cuvier
 
1769-1832
 
 
Alexander von Humboldt
 
1769-1859
 
 
 
 
Karl Friedrich Gauss
 
1777-1855
 
 
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
 
1778-1850
 
 
 
 
Humphry Davy
 
1778-1829
 
 
 
 
Jons Jakob Berzelius
 
1779-1848
 
 
 
 
Michael Faraday
 
1791-1867
 
 
Charles Babbage
 
1792-1871
 
 
Joseph Henry
 
1797-1878
 
 
Matthew Fontaine Maury
 
1806-1873
 
 
 
 
Louis Agassiz
 
1807-1873
 
 
Charles Darwin
 
1809-1882
 
 
 
Augusta Ada Byron
 
1815-1852
 
 
 
 
James Prescott Joule
 
1818-1868
 
 
 
 
Jean Bernard Leon Foucault
 
1819-1868
 
 
 
 
Gregor Mendel
 
1822-1884
 
 
Louis Pasteur
 
1822-1895
 
 
William Thomson, Lord Kelvin
 
1824-1907
 
 
Joseph Lister
 
1827-1912
 
 
Friedrich August Kekule
 
1829-1896
 
 
 
 
James Clerk Maxwell
 
1831-1879
 
 
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev
 
1834-1907
 
 
 
 
William Henry Perkin
 
1838-1907
 
 
 
 
Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen
 
1845-1923
 
 
 
 
Thomas Alva Edison
 
1847-1931
 
 
Luther Burbank
 
1849-1923
 
 
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
 
1849-1936
 
 
 
 
John Ambrose Fleming
 
1849-1945
 
 
 
 
William Ramsay
 
1852-1916
 
 
 
 
Antoine-Henri Becquerel
 
1852-1908
 
 
Albert Abraham Michelson
 
1852-1908
 
 
Sigmnd Freud
 
1856-1939
 
 
Joseph John Thomson
 
1856-1940
 
 
 
 
Nettie Marie Stevens
 
1861-1912
 
 
 
 
George Washington Carver
 
1864-1943
 
 
Marie Sklodowska Curie
 
1867-1934
 
 
Henrietta Swan Leavitt
 
1868-1921
 
 
Ernst Rutherford
 
1871-1937
 
 
 
 
Lise Meitner
 
1878-1968
 
 
Albert Einstein
 
1879-1955
 
 
Alexander Fleming
 
1881-1955
 
 
Niels Bohr
 
1885-1962
 
 
Selman Abraham Waksman
 
1888-1973
 
 
Edwin Powell Hubble
 
1889-1953
 
 
 
 
Robert Alexander Watson-Watt
 
1892-1973
 
 
 
 
Arthur Holly Compton
 
1892-1962
 
 
Irene Joliot-Curie
 
1897-1956
 
 
 
 
Linus Carl Pauling
 
1901-1994
 
 
Enrico Fermi
 
1901-1954
 
 
 
 
Werner Heisenberg
 
1901-1967
 
 
Margaret Mead
 
1901-1978
 
 
Barbara McClintock
 
1902-1992
 
 
 
 
Grace Brewster Murray Hopper
 
1906-1992
 
 
 
 
 
Marie Goeppert-Mayer
 
1906-1972
 
 
 
 
John Bardeen
 
1908-1991
 
 
 
 
William Bradford Shockley
 
1910-1989
 
 
 
 
Dorothy Crowfood Hodgkin
 
1910-1994
 
 
 
 
Jaques Yves Cousteau
 
1910-1997
 
 
 
 
Luis Walter Alvarez
 
1911-1988
 
 
 
 
Charles Hard Townes
 
1915-
 
 
 
 
Richard Philipis Feynman
 
1918-1988
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick Sanger
 
1918-
 
 
 
 
Rosalind Elsie Franklin
 
1920-1958
 
 
 
 
 
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
 
1921-
 
 
 
 
 
Har Gobind Khorana
 
1922-
 
 
 
 
 
Tsung-Dao Lee
 
1926-
 
 
 
 
James Dewey Watson
 
1928-
 
 
 
 
Stephen William Hawking
 
1942-
 
 
 
 
 
 
Science:
100 Scientists Who Changed the World
 
 
The list below is from the book Science: 100 Scientists Who Changed the World (Enchanted Lion Books: New York, 2003), written by John Balchin.
 
 
The names in this list are listed in chronological order. This book does not purport to list the "most influential" scientists in history, although these are presumably among them. The back cover states:
 
 
"If I saw further than others," said Sir Isaac Newton, "it is because I was standing on the shoulders of giants." Science introduces one hundred of these giants and examines their achievements: the men and women who, often in the face of extreme scepticism or worse, have striven and succeeded in pushing back the boundaries of human knowledge.
 
 
Ranging across the spectrum of scientific endeavour, from the cosmology of Copernicus and Galileo, through the medical revolutions of Hippocrates and Galen, it includes the fields of physics, biology, chemistry and genetics.
 
 
This is the story of the ideas that have shaped the world today, and the ideas that will shape the future.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anaximander
 
c. 611-547 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
Pythagoras
 
c. 581-497 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
Hippocrates of Cos
 
c. 460-377 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
Democritus of Abdera
 
c. 460-370 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
Plato
 
c. 427-347 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aristotle
 
c. 384-322 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Euclid
 
c. 330-260 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Archimedes
 
c. 287-212 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hipparchus
 
c. 170-125 B.C.
 
 
 
 
 
Zhang Heng
 
78-139 A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
Ptolemy
 
90-168 A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
Galen of Pergamum
 
130-201 A.D.
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Khwarizmi
 
800-850
 
 
 
 
 
 
Johannes Gutenberg
 
1400-1468
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leonardo da Vinci
 
1452-1519
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nicolas Copernicus
 
1473-1543
 
 
 
 
 
 
Andreas Vesalius
 
1514-1564
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Gilbert
 
1540-1603
 
 
 
 
 
Francis Bacon
 
1561-1626
 
 
 
 
 
 
Galileo Galileo
 
1564-1642
 
 
 
 
 
 
Johannes Kepler
 
1571-1630
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Harvey
 
1578-1657
 
 
 
 
 
 
Johann van Helmont
 
1579-1644
 
 
 
 
 
Rene Descartes
 
1596-1650
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blaise Pascal
 
1623-1662
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert Boyle
 
1627-1691
 
 
 
 
 
 
Christiann Huygens
 
1629-1695
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
 
1632-1723
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert Hooke
 
1635-1703
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sir Isaac Newton
 
1642-1727
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edmund Halley
 
1656-1742
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas Newcomen
 
1663-1729
 
 
 
 
 
 
Daniel Fahrenheit
 
1686-1736
 
 
 
 
 
Benjamin Franklin
 
1706-1790
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Black
 
1728-1799
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Cavendish
 
1731-1810
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Priestley
 
1733-1804
 
 
 
 
 
 
James Watt
 
1736-1819
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles de Coulomb
 
1736-1806
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Montgolfier
 
1740-1810
 
 
 
 
 
Karl Wilhelm Scheele
 
1742-1786
 
 
 
 
 
Antoine Lavoisier
 
1743-1794
 
 
 
 
 
 
Count Alessandro Volta
 
1745-1827
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edward Jenner
 
1749-1823
 
 
 
 
 
 
John Dalton
 
1766-1844
 
 
 
 
 
 
Andre-Marie Ampere
 
1755-1836
 
 
 
 
 
Amedo Avogadro
 
1776-1856
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joseph Gay-Lussac
 
1778-1850
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Babbage
 
1791-1871
 
 
 
 
 
 
Michael Faraday
 
1791-1867
 
 
 
 
 
 
Charles Darwin
 
1809-1881
 
 
 
 
 
 
James Joule
 
1818-1920
 
 
 
 
 
Louis Pasteur
 
1822-1895
 
 
 
 
 
 
Johann Gregor Mendel
 
1822-1884
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jean-Joseph Lenoir
 
1822-1900
 
 
 
 
 
Lord Kelvin
 
1824-1907
 
 
 
 
 
 
James Clerk Maxwell
 
1831-1879
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alfred Nobel
 
1833-1896
 
 
 
 
 
Wilhelm Gottlieb Daimler
 
1834-1900
 
 
 
 
 
Dmitri Mendeleev
 
1834-1907
 
 
 
 
 
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
 
1845-1923
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas Alva Edison
 
1847-1931
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexander Graham Bell
 
1847-1922
 
 
 
 
 
 
Antoine-Henri Becquerel
 
1852-1908
 
 
 
 
 
 
Paul Ehrlich
 
1854-1915
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nikola Tesla
 
1856-1943
 
 
 
 
 
Sir John Joseph Thomson
 
1856-1940
 
 
 
 
 
Sigmund Freud
 
1856-1939
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heinrich Rudolf Hertz
 
1857-1894
 
 
 
 
 
 
Max Planck
 
1858-1947
 
 
 
 
 
 
Leo Baekeland
 
1863-1944
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas Hunt Morgan
 
1866-1945
 
 
 
 
 
Marie Curie
 
1867-1934
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ernest Rutherford
 
1871-1937
 
 
 
 
 
The Wright Brothers
 
Wilbur: 1867-1912; Orville: 1871-1948
 
 
 
 
 
 
Guglielmo Marconi
 
1847-1937
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick Soddy
 
1877-1956
 
 
 
 
 
Albert Einstein
 
1879-1955
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alexander Fleming
 
1881-1955
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert Goddard
 
1882-1945
 
 
 
 
 
Neils Bohr
 
1885-1962
 
 
 
 
 
 
Erwin Schrodinger
 
1887-1961
 
 
 
 
 
 
Henry Moseley
 
1887-1915
 
 
 
 
 
Edwin Hubble
 
1889-1953
 
 
 
 
 
Sir James Chadwick
 
1891-1974
 
 
 
 
 
Frederick Banting
 
1891-1941
 
 
 
 
 
Louis de Broglie
 
1892-1987
 
 
 
 
 
Enrico Fermi
 
1901-1954
 
 
 
 
 
 
Werner Heisenberg
 
1901-1954
 
 
 
 
 
 
Linus Carl Pauling
 
1901-1994
 
 
 
 
 
 
Robert Oppenheimer
 
1904-1967
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sir Frank Whittle
 
1907-1996
 
 
 
 
 
Edward Teller
 
1908-
 
 
 
 
 
 
William Shockley
 
1910-1989
 
 
 
 
 
Alan Turing
 
1912-1954
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jonas Salk
 
1914-1995
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rosalind Franklin
 
1920-1958
 
 
 
 
 
 
James Dewey Watson
 
1928-
 
 
 
 
 
Stephen Hawking
 
1942-
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tim Berners-Lee
 
1955-