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19 May 2014

சத்யேந்திர நாத் போஸ் (1894-1974),

SATYENDRA NATH BOSE (Discoverer of Bose -Einstein Statistis )





Today most student of Physics and mathematics in higher classes study Bose-Einstein statistics. This new type of statistics was evolved by satyendra Nath Bose, the National Professor of India. The particles to which this statistics is applicable are named Bosons after him. This statistics is applicable to identical and indistinguishable particles, In higher studies, this statistics has a place of its own.


S.N.Bose was born in Calcutta, and was the son of a railway official Surendranath Bose . There is an interesting episode which gives a glimpse into his genius. In school , he once obtained 110 marks out of 100 in the mathematics paper, because he had soved some sums in more than one way. His teacher predicted that he would oneday become a great mathematician. His rival classmates knew that they would not get the first position in the university as long as S.N.Bose was there in the class . Because of this fear, quite a few of his classmates changed their subjets and some even did not appear in the examination that year. In 1915 S.N .Bose topped the Calcutta University. In the same year, he translated Einstein's "Theory of Relativeity" from German to English.
In1916 after completing his post - graduation , he was appointed a lecturer of Physics in Dacca University. In the same year, because world war I was at its peak, the researches done in Europe were not being published . Meanwhile many investigations were going on in the field of Nuclear Physics . S.N.Bose kept contats with Devender Nath Bose was, at that time doing research on magnetism in Germany, but due to onset of the War, was stuck up there.


In 1921 , S.N.Bose became a reader of physics in Dacca University. In 1923 , He submitted his research paper on the derivation of  Planks Equation to a British journal, The Philosophical Magazine. The referee rejected his paper and did not recommend it for publication. Bose was not disheartened due to the rejection of his paper. He was confident his work was of high standard. Bose sent his rejected paper to the world famous scientist Albert Einstein for his comments. Einstein read his paper and wrote back to bose that his work was an important contribution in mathematics. Einstein himself translated this paper in German and got it published in 'Zeit fur Physik' . After the publication of this paper in 1924, he became a man of world fame , and his name became associated with the great scientist Einstein. This paper marked a beginning of a new type of statistics called Bose-Einstein Statistics.


To relate an interesting incident from Bose's life, when he sent an application to Dacca University for the post of a Professor, the officials of the university told him that he did not have the degree of Ph.D. or D.Sc. essential for that post. They asked him to bring a certificate from  Einstein that his work was of Ph.D standard. When S.N.Bose wrote to Einstein for it , Einstein replied " Your countrymen do not believe that the work published is much above the standard of D.Sc. degree."


In 1924 , S.N.Bose went to Paris on study leave to carryout some research under Madame Curie. There he spent 10 Months working with Madame curie and Louis de Broglie. From there Bose went to Berlin where Einstein accorded him a warm welcome. There he had discussions with the world's renowed scientists such as Planck, Schrodinger, Pauli, Heisenberg and Sommerfield. Bose adopted Einstein as his Guru in the oriental tradition, though he never had any occasions to work with him.


From Berlin , Bose came bak to Dacca and was appointed professor and Head of the Department of Physics. In 1945 , he left Dacca and joined the University Science College in Calcutta as Professor of Physics. After his retirement in 1956, he was appointed the Vice Chancellor of the Vishvabharthi University. In all, he published around 24 papers on various aspects of physics.


Bose was very affectionate to his students. He would often help his students financially. He would chat for hours with friends and students on almost various subjets every evening. He was as much interested in solving crossward puzzles as complicated problems of physis and mathematics.]


After his retirement from Visvabharathi University , He was appointed a Fellow of the Royal society of London in 1958. In the same year he was also awarded Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India and was made the National Professor. In his old age , Bose went on pilgrimage to many scientific institutions of the country and give useful tips to   scientists. On 4th February 1974, he died in Calcutta.